# Dividing Polynomials - Definition, Synthetic Division, Long Division, and Examples

Polynomials are mathematical expressions which consist of one or more terms, each of which has a variable raised to a power. Dividing polynomials is a crucial operation in algebra that includes finding the remainder and quotient as soon as one polynomial is divided by another. In this article, we will explore the different approaches of dividing polynomials, including synthetic division and long division, and provide examples of how to use them.

We will further discuss the importance of dividing polynomials and its uses in different domains of mathematics.

## Prominence of Dividing Polynomials

Dividing polynomials is an essential operation in algebra which has several utilizations in many domains of arithmetics, consisting of number theory, calculus, and abstract algebra. It is applied to solve a broad spectrum of problems, including working out the roots of polynomial equations, figuring out limits of functions, and calculating differential equations.

In calculus, dividing polynomials is applied to work out the derivative of a function, which is the rate of change of the function at any moment. The quotient rule of differentiation consists of dividing two polynomials, that is applied to work out the derivative of a function which is the quotient of two polynomials.

In number theory, dividing polynomials is used to learn the properties of prime numbers and to factorize large values into their prime factors. It is further applied to study algebraic structures such as fields and rings, that are fundamental concepts in abstract algebra.

In abstract algebra, dividing polynomials is applied to specify polynomial rings, that are algebraic structures that generalize the arithmetic of polynomials. Polynomial rings are used in various fields of math, comprising of algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry.

## Synthetic Division

Synthetic division is a method of dividing polynomials that is used to divide a polynomial with a linear factor of the form (x - c), where c is a constant. The method is based on the fact that if f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, subsequently the division of f(x) by (x - c) gives a quotient polynomial of degree n-1 and a remainder of f(c).

The synthetic division algorithm includes writing the coefficients of the polynomial in a row, applying the constant as the divisor, and carrying out a chain of workings to figure out the quotient and remainder. The answer is a streamlined form of the polynomial that is simpler to function with.

## Long Division

Long division is an approach of dividing polynomials that is used to divide a polynomial with another polynomial. The approach is relying on the reality that if f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, and g(x) is a polynomial of degree m, where m ≤ n, subsequently the division of f(x) by g(x) gives a quotient polynomial of degree n-m and a remainder of degree m-1 or less.

The long division algorithm involves dividing the greatest degree term of the dividend with the highest degree term of the divisor, and subsequently multiplying the answer by the total divisor. The answer is subtracted from the dividend to obtain the remainder. The method is repeated until the degree of the remainder is less in comparison to the degree of the divisor.

## Examples of Dividing Polynomials

Here are a number of examples of dividing polynomial expressions:

### Example 1: Synthetic Division

Let's assume we have to divide the polynomial f(x) = 3x^3 + 4x^2 - 5x + 2 with the linear factor (x - 1). We can apply synthetic division to simplify the expression:

1 | 3 4 -5 2 | 3 7 2 |---------- 3 7 2 4

The result of the synthetic division is the quotient polynomial 3x^2 + 7x + 2 and the remainder 4. Thus, we can express f(x) as:

f(x) = (x - 1)(3x^2 + 7x + 2) + 4

### Example 2: Long Division

Example 2: Long Division

Let's assume we have to divide the polynomial f(x) = 6x^4 - 5x^3 + 2x^2 + 9x + 3 with the polynomial g(x) = x^2 - 2x + 1. We could apply long division to streamline the expression:

First, we divide the largest degree term of the dividend by the largest degree term of the divisor to get:

6x^2

Subsequently, we multiply the whole divisor with the quotient term, 6x^2, to get:

6x^4 - 12x^3 + 6x^2

We subtract this from the dividend to attain the new dividend:

6x^4 - 5x^3 + 2x^2 + 9x + 3 - (6x^4 - 12x^3 + 6x^2)

that simplifies to:

7x^3 - 4x^2 + 9x + 3

We recur the procedure, dividing the largest degree term of the new dividend, 7x^3, by the highest degree term of the divisor, x^2, to get:

7x

Next, we multiply the whole divisor with the quotient term, 7x, to obtain:

7x^3 - 14x^2 + 7x

We subtract this from the new dividend to achieve the new dividend:

7x^3 - 4x^2 + 9x + 3 - (7x^3 - 14x^2 + 7x)

that streamline to:

10x^2 + 2x + 3

We repeat the method again, dividing the highest degree term of the new dividend, 10x^2, with the highest degree term of the divisor, x^2, to achieve:

10

Subsequently, we multiply the whole divisor with the quotient term, 10, to get:

10x^2 - 20x + 10

We subtract this from the new dividend to achieve the remainder:

10x^2 + 2x + 3 - (10x^2 - 20x + 10)

that streamlines to:

13x - 10

Thus, the outcome of the long division is the quotient polynomial 6x^2 - 7x + 9 and the remainder 13x - 10. We can express f(x) as:

f(x) = (x^2 - 2x + 1)(6x^2 - 7x + 9) + (13x - 10)

## Conclusion

In Summary, dividing polynomials is a crucial operation in algebra which has many utilized in multiple domains of mathematics. Comprehending the different methods of dividing polynomials, for instance long division and synthetic division, could guide them in figuring out intricate problems efficiently. Whether you're a learner struggling to get a grasp algebra or a professional working in a domain that consists of polynomial arithmetic, mastering the concept of dividing polynomials is essential.

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