# Roman Numbers - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numbers?

When you think about numericals currently, the first thing that comes to mind is the decimal system we use daily. This method, however, is not the single way to represent numericals. There are a lot of methods used by various cultures around the world that use all sorts of characters. Classified among many one of the method is Roman numbers.

Given that ancient Rome, Roman numerals have become a method of expressing numbers using a combination of characters from the Latin alphabet. It existed during the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the point it is still educated in school, that is probably why you have come across this article.

Today, we are going to look at Roman numbers, definition, how they work, and how to convert Roman numbers to ordinary numbers.

## What Are Roman Numbers?

First, let's take a quick look at the history of Roman numerals. Roman numbers were initially used by the ancient Romans, as you might have expected from the name. They were employed in many angles of the Roman world, including business, architecture, and even warfare.

Currently, its main use is primarily because of its aesthetic reasons. You might have observed Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, copyright dates, page numbering, chapter numbers, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part III).

The Roman number system includes numbers using a combination of characters from the Latin alphabet. Characters are combined to form groups that represent numericals. Seven letters, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, represent the numericals 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, respectively. You can then blend these numbers to depict any value in the numerical system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Even though the decimal system is based on the concept of place value, Roman numbers are based on additive and subtractive principles. This states that a Roman number's numeric values are established on the sum of the values of its particular parts. Another major difference is that the decimal method is founded on the number 10. In contrast, Roman numerals are founded on the numericals 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's check out a few interactive examples of Roman numbers.

The computer game street fighter IV was released in arcades back in 2008. If we look at the numericals in the title, we see it consist of a V in it. This is because the number 5 in Roman number is represented by the alphabet V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Hence, we understand that this is the 4th entry in the series employing the characteristics we will talk about further ahead.

The movie Star Wars Episode VI was the latest entry in the original trilogy. Observing the value represented, it includes a V followed by an I. Thus, we will sum a 1 to the value of V, that is 5, letting us know this Star Wars film is the 6th to enter the series.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numerals, it is crucial to understand the numeric value of all the letters. To guide make this function easy, here is a chart with all Latin alphabets with defined number values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Transform from Roman Numbers to Everyday Numbers

Considering we have the convenient table of Roman numbers, we can utilize that information to transform numericals back and forth promptly. Following these steps, you will change these values whenever you want.

### Steps to Convert Roman numbers to Regular Numericals

To transform Roman numerals to regular numericals, we will use the linear and subtractive principles we discussed.

Start at the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

If the Roman numeral to its right is smaller in value, then add the two values.

If the Roman numerical to its right is higher in value, subtract the Roman numeral on the right out of the Roman numbers to its left.

All you should do now is repeat this method until you arrive at the end of the Roman numeral group.

Let's see how you can change Roman numbers with a some examples.

### Example 1

Study the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numeral, that is L or 50.

The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Since 10 is less than 50, we sum the both values and get 60.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is X again. We add 10 to 60 and the result is 70.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is V or 5. Because 5 is less than 70, we add the two values and get 75.

The Roman number to the right of V is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 75, we sum the two values and we find 76.

We stop here at the end of the Roman number group. Hence, the Roman numeral LXXVI is as same as the regular number 76.

### Example 2

Take into account the Roman number MCMIII.

Initiate with the leftmost Roman numeral, which is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Since 100 is less than 1000, and it is ensued by an M, this value refers to 900.

The Roman number to the right of M is I or 1. Because 1 is less than 1900, we add the two values and we find 1901.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1901 and the result is 1902.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1902 and we find 1903.

Because we have reached the end of the Roman numeral group, we halt here with our result. Thus, the Roman numeral MCMIII is as same as the decimal number 1903.

With this knowledge and a little practice, you will convert Roman numerals to decimal numbers like an expert!

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